Thursday, 16 May 2013

Historical aspect of tensions between India and China

Switching gears a bit, my thoughts go out to the steadily rising escalation between India and China. While India is rightfully expression anguish over its troops marching 10 kms inside its borders and not letting go of the Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) area in Ladakh, China has stuck to its version that there has been no intrusion of Chinese troops within India’s boundaries. Following up with this intrusions, came the report of two Chinese helicopters flying hundreds of kilometers into Indian airspace at Chumar (to the southeast of Leh).
Historically, the two emerging superpowers have co-existed peacefully in their earliest days (India and China have two of the world’s oldest civilizations). Starting with the famed Silk Route, there has always been a positive tone of cooperation between the two nations as far as trade and economic ties are concerned. Even with the daunting Himalayan ranges bordering and separating the two countries, there has been no shortage of border-related disputes between India and China. Contemporary historical period is filled with three distinct periods of border related military clashes between the two nations:

1.       Sino-Indian war of 1962: Started with China’s infiltration of the 3000 km long Himalayan border, it involved coordinated offensives launched by Chinese army. The war reached an end with a declaring of ceasefire by China and the subsequent withdrawal of its troops from the disputed area

2.      Chola incident (1967): Triggered by the intrusion of People’s Liberation Army of China into Sikkim (at that time, a protectorate that was elf governed but its interests was protected by India). The day long conflict ended with the retreat of the PLA from Sikkim

3.      1987 Sino-Indian conflict: Following a ramp up of presence of India forces across the Line of Actual Control on the Indo-China border, there was severe deterioration of relations between the two countries. After India’s granting of statehood to Arunachal Pradesh, this led to a danger of a war between them. Finally both governments realized the need for de-escalating the conflict and phased out the heavy army presence on the border regions

In the current context there are two territories that are at the center of Indo-China disputes – Arunachal Pradesh (located near far-east India) and Aksai Chin (located at the north-west corner of India). Both China and India lay claim to the disputed regions without conceding it to the other. On the other end of the spectrum both countries acknowledge the need for a strong bilateral tie that was further strengthened by the recent meeting of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao with India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. A significant cornerstone of this meet is the signing of pact to increase bilateral trade to 100 billion dollars by 2015

Resource: website content writing services

Monday, 6 May 2013

False Positives and False Negatives in Software Testing

Simply put,
False Positive is the situation when the functionality is working, but yet it is marked as ‘failed’ in testing/practical application
False Negative is the situation when the functionality is not working, but yet it is marked as ‘passed’ in testing/practical application

Real-life examples

1.            Software coding:  Thorough testing results in correct and valid code to get rejected (due to mismatch of understanding between coder and tester)

2.            Healthcare sector: Low-cost medical tests administered detects illness that warrants further elaborate testing (which then reveals absence of the illness)

3.            Government administration: Pre-election poll roundup denotes win of a particular candidate who will be defeated by a significant margin in the actual elections

4.            Airport security: Metal detector sounds off an alarm on presence of a small coin (sensing it to be a weapon)

5.            Anti-virus: The most popular form of ‘false positive’ is when an anti-virus blocks a safe program (or .exe file) thinking it to be a potential threat.

Steps to detect ‘falses’

1.            Change the input or the sample so that the behavior changes with this new sample. Changing the test data will point out to deviations in working of the code and hence alert us of the ‘false positives’ or ‘false negatives’

2.            Do a rigorous testing on dummy or test data (complete with all minor details) so that code performance can be monitored in an alternative environment of variables and data

3.            Provide for automating the actions, process or steps. Since automation looks for pattern in data and then performs a pre-defined action, this step can be crucial in trapping the ‘falses’

Which of the two are most dangerous?

It depends on the level of efforts required to detect such ‘falses’.
False positive will be pointed as an error (and will stop the program execution) even when it is safe. On the other hand, false negative will continue running the program even though it should’ve been stopped when it encountered the error bit.
Hence, owing the detection level, false negative is the more dangerous of the two, as there is no indicator alerting us that there is something wrong in the programming. 

Resource: Content Writing Services India